magnetic-flux-leakage

As with MPI, the ferromagnetic specimen is magnetised by one of the methods listed, and depending upon the level of induced flux density, magnetic flux leakage due to both near- and far-surface flaws is detected by the voltage induced in a detector coil or a Hall effect element, which is traversed over the surface of the specimen. Unlike MPI, the method is not limited to surface-breaking or near-surface flaws, but actually becomes increasingly sensitive to far-surface flaws with increasing levels of magnetisation. Also, the output from the detector can be amplified, filtered, digitised, etc and stored to produce automated inspection systems. The method is widely used on bar and tube stock with both rotating specimens and rotating probes. Multi-element and differential probes are also used, and inspection speeds can be very high. One technique, known as magnetography, utilizes a special form of magnetic tape applied to the surface of a specimen during magnetization, allowing flux leakage fields to be picked up and stored on the tape. The tape can then be removed from the specimen for processing and analysis of the signals.

The method is also finding increasing use in the petrochemical industries for providing high-speed inspections of storage tank floors, as well as carbon steel pipes. These systems utilize either permanent or electromagnets to provide localized near-magnetic saturation coupled with induction coil or Hall effect sensor arrays for detecting anomalous flux leakage caused by the presence of corrosion defects (both near and far surface). Many of these systems rely upon the use of an adjustable threshold  or  amplitude  gate  to  provide  the detection of corrosion in real-time, while some of the more advanced systems, through the use of both advanced electronics and signal processing are able to provide corrosion maps of inspected areas similar to the C-scan representation of ultrasonic data

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